Different flours used in Indian Kitchen

Flour

Flour is a powder made of cereal grains and popularly called as Atta in hindi. It is the main ingredient of bread, Wheat flour is one of the most important foods in india.
Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are complex carbohydrates
 
Different types of flour used in indian cuisine:
Whole wheat flours (Atta)
Whole wheat flours are made from the whole kernel of wheat. The fiber-rich bran with its B vitamins, the starch- and protein-rich endosperm with its iron and B vitamins, and the oily germ with its vitamin E.* because they contain bran, whole-grain flours have much more fiber than refined white flours

Refined flours (Maida)
Refined flour is made from the endosperm of the wheat kernel. It is more whitish than whole wheat flours because they do not contain the brown bran and germ. They have less fiber and fat and smaller amounts than whole wheat flours.

Gram flour(Besan)
This is a flour made from ground chana dal. Popularly hnown as  besan, it is a staple ingredient in Indian cuisine, Gram flour contains a high proportion of carbohydrates but no gluten.,and  in comparison to other flours gram flour has a relatively high proportion of protein. 
Semolina(Sooji)
Semolina is the purified middlings of Durum wheat used in making pasta; also, the coarse middlings used for breakfast cereals and puddings.
Maize Flour (Makki ka Atta)
 Populary known as Makki ka Atta, is the produce of punjab made by grinding corn. This flour makes a very intresting variety of breads.
Cornstarch
Corn Starch is the refined form of Cornflour.
Bean flour
Bean Flour is a flour produced from pulverized dried or ripe beans. 
Pea flour
Pea Flour is a flour produced from roasted and pulverized yellow field peas.. 
Rice flour
Rice Flour is ground kernels of rice. It is used in Western countries and especially for people who suffer from gluten intolerance, since rice does not contain gluten.  But it is also used very commonly in India for preparation of some undian breads, sweets or to give crispyness to some products.

Soya Flour
This is made from the soyabeans, is a very rich source of protein and fibers. This is however is a new entry in this category but it is very healty and gain lots of importance in our diet.

Some important Facts:
·         The bran is the kernel's hard, brown outer cover, an extraordinarily rich source of cellulose and lignin.It constitutes 15% of the volume of the kernel. The endosperm is the kernel's pale interior, where the vitamins abound accounts for maximum volume of 82.5%. The germ, a small particle in the interior, just 2.5%, is the part of the kernel that sprouts.

·         Gluten is the sticky substance formed while kneading the dough,when the proteins gliadin and glutenin  reacts which water.The long-chain molecules in the gliadin and glutenin so that some of their intermolecular bonds (bonds between atoms in the same molecule) break and new intramolecular bonds (bonds between atoms on different molecules) are formed.


·         Hard wheat has less starch and more protein than soft wheat. It makes heavier, denser dough.




Different flours used in Indian Kitchen - Shakesh Singh
Different flours used in Indian cuisine, beans flour, maize flour,gram flour, corn starch

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